Job Demands and Resources Theory

To better understand the causes of burnout, Bakker and colleagues developed the JD-R Questionnaire. This lengthy survey, uses some additional variables to provide us a better understanding of burnout.

Bakker, et al. present the theory as follows:

  • High job demands = stress = often leads to emotional exhaustion
  • Low resources = stress = often leads to emotional exhaustion and low performance
  • These variables are able to predict employee levels of:
    • Emotional Exhaustion
    • Depersonalization (Cynicism = root of incivility)
    • Low Personal Accomplishment


Bakker, A. (2014, March). The Job Demands-Resources Questionnaire: English Version. Received by email from Dr. Bakker.
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309–328.
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management, 43(1), 83–104.
Bakker, A. B., van Veldhoven, M., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2010). Beyond the Demand-Control Model Thriving on High Job Demands and Resources. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9(1), 3–16.
Caponetti, A. R. (2012). The Correlates of Work Role Stress with Employee Burnout, Engagement (Dissertation). University of Texas, Knoxville.
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499–512.
Gordon, H. J., Demerouti, E., Bipp, T., & Le Blanc, P. M. (2015). The Job Demands and Resources Decision Making (JD-R-DM) Model. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24(1), 44–58.
Harwell, K. (2013). Burnout and Job Engagement in the Library. Library Leadership & Management, 27(1/2).
Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(7), 893–917.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Heuven, E., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Working in the Sky: A Diary Study on Work Engagement Among Flight Attendants. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(4), 345–356.