Job Demands and Resources Theory

To better understand the causes of burnout, Bakker and colleagues developed the JD-R Questionnaire. This lengthy survey, uses some additional variables to provide us a better understanding of burnout.

Bakker, et al. present the theory as follows:

  • High job demands = stress = often leads to emotional exhaustion
  • Low resources = stress = often leads to emotional exhaustion and low performance
  • These variables are able to predict employee levels of:
    • Emotional Exhaustion
    • Depersonalization (Cynicism = root of incivility)
    • Low Personal Accomplishment

References

Bakker, A. (2014, March). The Job Demands-Resources Questionnaire: English Version. Received by email from Dr. Bakker.
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309–328.
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Verbeke, W. (2004). Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance. Human Resource Management, 43(1), 83–104. http://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20004
Bakker, A. B., van Veldhoven, M., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2010). Beyond the Demand-Control Model Thriving on High Job Demands and Resources. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9(1), 3–16. http://doi.org/10.1027/1866-5888/a000006
Caponetti, A. R. (2012). The Correlates of Work Role Stress with Employee Burnout, Engagement (Dissertation). University of Texas, Knoxville.
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499–512. http://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.86.3.499
Gordon, H. J., Demerouti, E., Bipp, T., & Le Blanc, P. M. (2015). The Job Demands and Resources Decision Making (JD-R-DM) Model. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24(1), 44–58. http://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2013.842901
Harwell, K. (2013). Burnout and Job Engagement in the Library. Library Leadership & Management, 27(1/2).
Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(7), 893–917. http://doi.org/10.1002/job.595
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Heuven, E., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Working in the Sky: A Diary Study on Work Engagement Among Flight Attendants. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(4), 345–356. http://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.13.4.345